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Sunday, August 28, 2016

Roman history facts

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World History and Geography: Ancient Rome
a. Geography of the Mediterranean Region
i. Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea
ii. Greece, Italy (peninsula), France, Spain
iii. Strait of Gibraltar, Atlantic Ocean
iv. North Africa, Asia Minor (peninsula), Turkey
v. Bosporus (strait), Black Sea, Istanbul (Constantinople)
vi. Red Sea, Persian Gulf
b. Background
i. Define B.C. /A.D. and B.C.E. /C.E.
ii. The legend of Romulus and Remus
iii. Latin as the language of Rome
iv. Worship of gods and goddesses, largely based on Greek religion
                                                                               . The Republic: Senate, Patricians, Plebeians
vi. Punic Wars: Carthage, Hannibal
c. The Empire
i. Julius Caesar
a) Defeats Pompey in civil war, becomes dictator
b) "Veni, vidi, vici" ("I came, I saw, I conquered")
c) Cleopatra of Egypt
d) Caesar assassinated in the Senate, Brutus
ii. Augustus Caesar
iii. Life in the Roman Empire
a) The Forum: temples, marketplaces, etc.
b) The Colosseum: circuses, gladiator combat, chariot races
c) Roads, bridges, and aqueducts
iv. Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, destruction of Pompeii
v. Persecution of Christians
d. The "Decline and Fall" of Rome
i. Weak and corrupt emperors, legend of Nero fiddling as Rome burns
ii. Civil wars
iii. City of Rome sacked
e. The Eastern Roman Empire: Byzantine Civilization
i. The rise of the Eastern Roman Empire, known as the Byzantine Empire
ii. Constantine, first Christian emperor
iii. Constantinople (now called Istanbul) merges diverse influences and cultures.
iv. Justinian, Justinian’s Code

Friday, August 26, 2016

Roman calendar facts

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The Romans borrowed parts of their earliest known calendar from the Greeks. The calendar consisted of 10 months in a year of 304 days. The Romans seem to have ignored the remaining 61 days, which fell in the middle of winter. The 10 months were named Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December. The last six names were taken from the words for five, six, seven, eight, nine, and ten. Romulus, the legendary first ruler of Rome, is supposed to have introduced this calendar in the 700s B.C.E.
According to tradition, the Roman ruler Numa Pompilius added January and February to the calendar. This made the Roman year 355 days long. To make the calendar correspond approximately to the solar year, Numa also ordered the addition every other year of a month called Mercedinus. Mercedinus was inserted after February 23 or 24, and the last days of February were moved to the end of Mercedinus. In years when it was inserted, Mercedinus added 22 or 23 days to the year.

Roman Fasti
FastiSome 200 fragments of Roman calendars have been found so far, and they are collectively known as Fasti.

What did a Roman calendar look like?

The Roman calendar used a system of months, and special days in each month. Some calendars were carved in marble or stone, but many were painted on walls for decoration.
Different geographical areas often held different gods in special esteem, and this led to regional variations in calendars. This doesn’t seem so strange when one considers that even within the US, Mardi Gras often appears only on Southern calendars, and Lincoln’s birthday sometimes does not.
In 45 B.C.E., Romans modified their method of marking time to keep it in phase with seasons, but not require intercalation of an extra month. They accomplished this with the Julian Calendar. Month lengths were extended to bring the calendar’s total to 365 days, making it truly solar. This change was accompanied by addition of an extra day every fourth year (after February 23rd) because of the almost six extra hours beyond 365 days in a tropical year.

How do you read the calendar?

In the calendar of the ancient Romans, the months contained three primary markers – the Kalends, the Nones and the Ides. The Kalends were always the first day of the month. The Nones were usually the 5th but sometimes the 7th, and the Ides were the 15th but sometimes the 13th. All the days after the Ides were numbered by counting down towards the next month’s Kalends. The holidays were generally bunched together to form continuous celebrations, and the remaining days of the month were usually nondescript workdays.
The days were each identified with certain letters and names. The Kalends were always identified as shown in the diagram at right. The archaic form of the K, for Kalends, was used in front of the name of the month. The first letter was called the Nundinae ("nine day") , or the Nundinal letter, and it represented the market day. Every 9th day (counting inclusively) was a market day, but as it shifted every year, a designated letter between A and H would represent the market day for that year. The final letter identifies the type of day for purposes of religious observance or legal business.
kalends
kalends
kalends
kalends
kalends
kalends
The top diagram shows a typical non-holiday. The first letter is the nundinal letter for the market day. If the market day for this year was E then this would be a market day. The second letter signifies the type of religious or legal observance required or permitted on this day. In this case the letter C represents dies comitiales, days when committees of citizens could vote on political or criminal matters. The other letter designations :
  1. F stands for dies fasti, days on which legal action is permitted.
  2. N stands for dies nefasti, which meant that no legal action or public voting could take place on this day.
  3. EN stands for endotercisus, or intercisus, which were "in-between" F or C days in which mornings and afternoons had different designations.
  4. NP, the combination of N and P, represented some important type of religious observance of which all records have disappeared. However, they all seem to be directly associated with major holidays.
  5. FP also represented some religious holiday, but no definition survives for this abbreviation.
The center diagram is a typical festival, or feriae. On these days the day letter follows the holiday name, which is abbreviated in these calendars. These holidays are explained in the write-up for each day.
The Romans enjoyed more holidays than the number of our holidays and weekends combined. Roman taxes were also only a tithe, or 10%. One of the hallmarks of progress seems to be that the populace is always made to work longer and, on top of it all, they are taxed more.
moonphase

What were the Roman weekdays?

The Romans did not have weekdays in the same sense as our Monday, Tuesday, etc., however, they did have a defined markers within each month. Originally, the month and the markers were based on the moon.
At the time of their early kings, Roman months were of a length identical to the lunar cycle. Each month was divided into sections that ended on the day of one of the first three phases of the moon: new, first quarter or full. All days were referred to in terms of one of these three moon phase names, Kalends, Nones or Ides.
At that time a pontifex (priest) was assigned to observe the sky. When he first sighted a thin lunar crescent he called out that there was a new moon and declared the next month had started. For centuries afterward, Romans referred to the first day of each month as Kalendae or Kalends from the Latin word calare (to announce solemnly, to call out). The word calendar was derived from this custom.

Day of Kalends

Of the three sections, Kalends was the longest – it had more days than the other two combined. That’s because it spanned more than two lunar phases, starting from the day after full moon and continuing thru its last quarter and waning period, then past the dark new moon until another lunar crescent was sighted. The day of Kalends itself began a new month. It was dedicated to Juno, a principal goddess of the Roman Pantheon.
Unnamed days in the early Roman month were assigned a number by counting down following the day of each named phase, day by day, ending with the next of those three phases. The first numbered day in each section had the section’s highest value. Each succeeding day was one number lower than that of the day before. (Similar to the modern count-down when coordination of a group of people is required for a complicated activity such as launching a rocket.)
Latin for "the evening before" is "Pridie," a word that was used to refer to the day before each of these named phases. So Pridie was always the day that would otherwise have been numbered two. The count-down was inclusive; the day from which they started as well as that of the moon phase to which they were counting down, day one, were both included.

Day of Nones

Nones (Latin nonus or ninth) was originally the day when the moon reached its first quarter phase. When the pontifex initially saw the lunar crescent he noted its width and, using empirical knowledge, calculated the number of days that were expected to elapse between then and the first quarter moon. He then specified that number after he announced the new crescent. If he called out the number six, the day following Kalends would be referred to as the sixth day before Nones.
In any given year, the second day of Martius might well have been designated as the sixth of the Nones of March: "ante diem VI Non. Mart." If this were the case, Nones would be the seventh day and Ides would be the 15th day of that month. The difference between these two dates, eight days, was always the length of the Ides section.
Use of the word "Nones" (nine) was intended to express the inclusive number of elapsed days between first quarter and full moons. Actually, the time between moon phases now averages about 7.4 days, but they sometimes occur eight days apart. Eight-day separations of first quarter and full moons now usually come grouped in consecutive lunations. They then give way to mostly seven-day periods.
Six of the first seven lunations of 1997, for instance, had their first quarter and full moon phases eight days apart (inclusive nine-day spans). Also, July 1 of 1998 had a first-quarter moon followed by a new moon on July 9, a nine-day period. This helps explain why the unlikely term of Nones, meaning ninth, was used to designate one fourth of the moon’s period that now averages about 29.53 days.

Day of Ides

Ides, dedicated to Jupiter, was originally the time of the full moon. Because a full moon comes halfway thru each lunation, its day was called Idus in Latin from an Etruscan word meaning "divide."
After Ides, the next new moon was expected to appear in from 15 to 17 days. Variations in the length of time before another new moon can be sighted is due to constantly changing positions of moon and Earth relative to the sun.

When did they stop using the moon for months?

Romans separated their months from the lunar cycle in the fifth century B.C.E. Month lengths then became fixed. At that time, Ides was assigned as the 15th day in all months given 31 days in length – March, May, July and October. It was designated as the 13th day in all other months. As a result, from then on the Kalends section had from 16 to 19 days, the Nones section had either four or six days and the Ides section, as before, always had eight days.
Sometime after Kalends, Nones and Ides were fixed on predetermined days of the month rather than being defined by phases of the moon, Romans used letters A thru H on the left side of each month’s calendar column to indicate days of their eight-day marketing week. The first day of each new year was represented by the letter "A."

When did the early Roman calendar begin?

The early Roman calendar originated as a local calendar in the city of Rome, supposedly drawn up by Romulus some seven or eight centuries before the Christian Era. The year began in March and consisted of 10 months, six of 30 days and four of 31 days, making a total of 304 days: it ended in December, to be followed by what seems to have been an uncounted winter gap. Numa Pompilius, according to tradition the second king of Rome (715?-673? B.C.E.), is supposed to have added two extra months, January and February, to fill the gap and to have increased the total number of days by 50, making 354. To obtain sufficient days for his new months, he is then said to have deducted one day from the 30-day months, thus having 56 days to divide between January and February. But since the Romans had, or had developed, a superstitious dread of even numbers, January was given an extra day; February was still left with an even number of days, but as that month was given over to the infernal gods, this was considered appropriate. The system allowed the year of 12 months to have 355 days, an uneven number.

When did the Roman republican calendar begin?

The so-called Roman republican calendar was supposedly introduced by the Etruscan Tarquinius Priscus (616-579 B.C.E.), according to tradition the fifth king of Rome.
The Roman republican calendar was a dating system that evolved in Rome prior to the Christian era. According to legend, Romulus, the founder of Rome, instituted the calendar in about 738 B.C.E. This dating system, however, was probably a product of evolution from the Greek lunar calendar, which in turn was derived from the Babylonian. The original Roman calendar appears to have consisted only of 10 months and of a year of 304 days. The remaining 61¼ days were apparently ignored, resulting in a gap during the winter season. The months bore the names Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Juniius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December–the last six names correspond to the Latin words for the numbers 5 through 10. The Roman ruler Numa Pompilius is credited with adding January at the beginning and February at the end of the calendar to create the 12-month year. In 452 B.C.E., February was moved between January and March.
By the 1st century B.C.E., the Roman calendar had become hopelessly confused. The year, based on cycles and phases of the moon, totaled 355 days, about 10¼ days shorter than the solar year. The occasional intercalation of an extra month of 27 or 28 days, called Mercedonius, kept the calendar in step with the seasons. The confusion was compounded by political maneuvers. The Pontifex Maximus and the College of Pontiffs had the authority to alter the calendar, and they sometimes did so to reduce or extend the term of a particular magistrate or other public official. Finally, in 46 B.C.E., Julius Caesar initiated a thorough reform that resulted in the establishment of a new dating system, the Julian calendar.
He wanted the year to begin in January since it contained the festival of the god of gates (later the god of all beginnings), but expulsion of the Etruscan dynasty in 510 B.C.E. led to this particular reform’s being dropped. The Roman republican calendar still contained only 355 days, with February having 28 days; March, May, July, and October 31 days each; January, April, June, August, September, November, and December 29 days. It was basically a lunar calendar and short by 10¼ days of a 365¼ -day tropical year. In order to prevent it from becoming too far out of step with the seasons, an intercalary month, Intercalans, or Mercedonius (from merces, meaning wages, since workers were paid at this time of year), was inserted between February 23 and 24. It consisted of 27 or 28 days, added once every two years, and in historical times at least, the remaining five days of February were omitted. The intercalation was therefore equivalent to an additional 22 or 23 days, so that in a four-year period the total days in the calendar amounted to (4 x 355) + 22 + 23, or 1,465: this gave an average of 366.25 days per year.
Intercalation was the duty of the Pontifices, a board that assisted the chief magistrate in his sacrificial functions. The reasons for their decisions were kept secret, but, because of some negligence and a measure of ignorance and corruption, the intercalations were irregular, and seasonal chaos resulted. In spite of this and the fact that it was over a day too long compared with the tropical year, much of the modified Roman republican calendar was carried over into the Gregorian calendar now in general use.

What were the Roman months?

Much of the knowledge we now have about early Roman calendars came from Ovid, a Roman born in 43 B.C.E., and from Plutarch, a Greek biographer who wrote between C.E. 105 and 115. Both of them had access to historical documents that are no longer extant. Ovid claimed that his information was "dug up in archaic calendars," so it was already ancient over two thousand years ago.
We can assume that the Roman calendar was brought from their birthplace by Rome’s original citizens. Initially, it contained only ten months. It has been suggested that those month lengths reflected growth cycles of crops and cattle. When compared with the solar year, it had an uncounted winter period of approximately sixty days.
Plutarch said that months at the time of Rome’s founding were of varying lengths, some as short as twenty days and others with thirty-five or more in what early Romans believed was a year of three hundred and sixty days. Romulus, the legendary first king, was said to have made extensive changes to those month lengths, assigning twenty-nine days to some and thirty-one to others.

March (the first month)

Both Ovid and Plutarch said that Martius, originally the first month, was named after Mars, the Roman god of war. Six of the other original ten were simply numbered as Quintilis thru Decembris (fifth thru tenth) but there were already disagreements when Ovid wrote, two thousand years ago, as to the sources of names for what were originally the second thru fourth, Aprilis, Maius and Junius. These disagreements continue to the present time.

April

When writing about April, Ovid said "I have come to the fourth month, full of honor for you; Venus, you know both the poet and the month are yours." It was later said that "April was sacred to Venus, and her festival – the Festum Veneris and Fortuna Virilis – occurred on the first day of this month." Apparently Aprilis stems from aphrilis, corrupted from Aphrodite, a Greek name for Venus. Jakob Grimm, a later authority, opposed this stating it may have originated from the name of a god or hero named Aper or Aprus."

May

Maius was said by some to be named after the goddess Maia, a daughter of Atlas, and Junius "is indirectly named after the goddess Juno, the Roman equivalent of Frigga." But Ovid suggested that names of months we now call May and June possibly refer not to sky-gods but rather to elders and young men.

January (at the end of the year)

There was also disagreement in Ovid’s day as to the sequence and time at which Januarius and Februarius were added to the original ten months. Januarius became part of the calendar within half a century after Rome was founded because Plutarch said that Numa, the king who followed Romulus, made it the first month of the year and made February the last. One historian assigns that action an exact date by stating that "January and February were added to an original Roman calendar of only ten months in 713 B.C.E."
January was named after Janus, a sky-god who was ancient even at the time of Rome’s founding. Ovid quoted Janus as saying "The ancients called me chaos, for a being from of old am I." After describing the world’s creation, he again quoted Janus: "It was then that I, till that time a mere ball, a shapeless lump, assumed the face and members of a god." A Lydian named Joannes identified Janus as a planet when he wrote: "Our own Philadelphia still preserves a trace of the ancient belief. On the first day of the month there goes in procession no less a personage than Janus himself, dressed up in a two-faced mask, and people call him Saturnus, identifying him with Kronos."
Early Romans believed that the beginning of each day, month and year were sacred to Janus. They thought he opened the gates of heaven at dawn to let out the morning, and that he closed them at dusk. This eventually led to his worship as the god of all doors, gates, and entrances.
Some say Februarius got its name from a goatskin thong called a februa ("means of purification.") On the 15th day of this month Romans observed the festival of Lupercalia. During the festival, a februa was wielded by priests who used it to beat women in the belief that it would make a barren woman fertile. However, there’s a Latin verb februare, meaning to "expiate" or "purify." It seems more reasonable to assume the purification people had in mind when naming the month was that of the calendar year’s length, not that of women upon whom the thong was applied.

Februrary (at the end of the year)

Apparently Februarius, when adopted, had but 23 days – traditionally the 23rd day of that month was the end of the calendar year. That indicates Februarius was observed in pre-Romulan times when months had as few as twenty days. Also, adding five days at year-end (to extend February’s length to 28) is similar to the change made by many other peoples who, around the time of Rome’s founding, added five days to their own calendar, but considered them to be unlucky and not part of the normal year.

Why is our leap day in Februrary, not the end of the year?

Romans always reconciled differences between calendar and solar year lengths during the "Month of Purification." Whenever and however Roman calendars were modified to correspond to year length, it was always done after the 23rd day of February, traditionally the last day of the year. Even in our time, leap year is observed with a 29-day February. To purists, "leap day" is February 24, not the 29th.
Plutarch wrote: "Numa...added an intercalary month, to follow February, consisting of twenty-two days, and called by the Romans the month Mercedinus. This amendment, however, itself, in course of time, came to need other amendments." (When observed, that leap month always immediately followed February 23.)
According to historian Livy, Numa divided the year into twelve months, corresponding to the moon’s revolutions. But as the moon does not complete thirty days in each month, and so there are fewer days in the lunar year than in that measured by the course of the sun, he interpolated intercalary months and so arranged them that every twentieth year the days should coincide with the same position of the sun as when they started, the whole twenty years being thus complete. He also established a distinction between the days on which legal business could be transacted and those on which it could not, because it would sometimes be advisable that there should be no business transacted with the people.
Others claim that it wasn’t until 452 B.C.E. that a month named Intercalaris was added to the Roman calendar in order to add those days required to bring calendar length back into phase with the solar year. This month also began after the 23rd day of Februarius. It was observed every second year and was said to have had a length of either 22 or 23 days, with the remaining five days of Februarius added after them.

Beware the Ides of March!

SOOTHSAYER.Caesar!
CAESAR.Ha! Who calls?
CASCA.Bid every noise be still.–Peace yet again!
[Music ceases.]
CAESAR.Who is it in the press that calls on me? I hear a tongue, shriller than all the music, Cry "Caesar"! Speak, Caesar is turn’d to hear.
SOOTHSAYER.Beware the Ides of March.
CAESAR.What man is that?
BRUTUS.A soothsayer bids you beware the Ides of March.
CAESAR.Set him before me; let me see his face.
CASSIUS.Fellow, come from the throng; look upon Caesar.
CAESAR.What say'st thou to me now? Speak once again.
SOOTHSAYER.Beware the Ides of March.
CAESAR.He is a dreamer; let us leave him. Pass.
[Sennet. Exeunt all but BRUTUS and CASSIUS.]
If you’ve heard the warning, "Beware the Ides of March," then it’s probably due to the works of William Shakespeare. The Roman ruler, Julius Caesar, was assassinated on the Ides of March - March 15, 44 B.C.E. In Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar, (I, ii, 33), a soothsayer tells Caesar who is already on his way to the Senate (and his death), "Beware the Ides of March."
Caesar asks him to come closer and repeat what he has just said. He studies the man’s face, listens to the warning again, but decIdes, "He is a dreamer, let us leave him. Pass." There is irony here, because the audience knows (from history) that Caesar will be killed on the Ides, and that he is exercising poor judgement in dismissing this prophecy. Later, when he meets the Soothsayer again on the way to the Senate, he confidently says to him, "The Ides of March have come." But the Soothsayer reminds him, "Ay, Caesar, but not gone." There will be other warnings to Caesar from different people, which he will ignore, and go off to meet his death. The phrase "Beware the Ides of March" is one of the most remembered lines of Shakespeare’s plays.
The unidentified soothsayer from Shakespeare’s play may have been a Roman astrologer by the name of Spurinna. According to to historical writer C.J.S. Thompson (and confirmed in Plutarch’s account of the story written in 75 C.E.) it was reportedly sometime prior to the fateful day of March 15 that Spurinna had first given Caesar the famous warning to "beware of the Ides of March." The astrologer, Spurinna, had previously warned Caesar that on the Ides of March, he would be in great danger. If, however, Julius Caesar took care on that one day - then all would be well.
According to Plutarch, Caesar had previously made the wise decision to stay within the safety of his bedroom chambers on the 15th of March. However, Caesar’s "friend" Decimus (Albinus) Brutus (not Marcus Brutus) managed to convince him that the astrologer’s warnings were nothing more than superstitious foolishness. So Julius Caesar decided to attend the Senate on the 15th of March. On his way to the Senate, Caesar "accidentally" met up with the astrologer, Spurinna. Caesar then told the astrologer "The Ides of March are come." Spurinna answered, "Yes, they are come, but they are not past." Later that day - on March 15, 44 B.C.E - Caesar’s enemies assassinated him in the Pompey theater, at the foot of Pompey’s statue, where the Roman Senate was meeting that day in the temple of Venus.





Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Playing Crazy Eights:A Fun Activity for Long Term Care Residents

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What you need: Two or more players and a deck of playing cards.

How to play: One player, chosen as the dealer, deals out five cards (seven cards if only two are playing) to each player. The rest of the cards get placed face down as the stock pile. The top card on that pile is turned over face up beside the pile to start the discard pile. The game goes clockwise from the dealer, and the first player must play a card on the discard pile or take one from the stock pile. The game keeps going until someone gets rid of all of his or her cards.

The rules: To be able to play a card on the discard pile, the card must match either the number or the suit of the card on top of the discard pile. For example, if the queen of diamonds is on top, the card to be played must be either any queen or any diamond. All eights are "crazy," meaning you can play them anytime. However, you must say which suit will be played next when you play the eight card.

How to win: Be the first player to get rid of all of your cards.

What else you need to know: In a variation of this game, score penalty points for all cards left in your hand after someone wins. Face cards count as 10 points; eights count as 50 points, and all number cards count as face value. Play until someone gets 500 penalty points.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

History of schools

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The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

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In the 1800s children were dressed like little adults and, in fact, treated like adults in that they were (in the lower classes) expected to go to work as early as 5 or 6. They were probably more serious than our children; working in a dangerous factory will knock lots of foolishness out of a child. There was no such thing as a teenager and no cult of children who need to be spoiled and entertained. Girls were often married at 15 or 16 and, in the middle to lower classes, boys were expected to decide at about 10 what trade they wanted to go into, so they could be apprenticed.
There was no standard or requirement for literacy; the boys in the upper classes were fluent in Latin, Greek, often French, with some Italian. They were heavily versed in the literary classics. Their less fortunate peers went to school when they could and often taught themselves after work.
Girls in the upper classes were literate and probably knowledgeable in light literature (poetry, novels, etc.) but were discouraged from learning anything more than "feminine accomplishments": playing the pianoforte, drawing, fine needlework.
Poor girls were lucky to be able to read, but often knew something the "better" girls did not: how to run a household.
These children were also raised with a greater presence of death. Dying in childbirth was fairly common and, since birth control was illegal and unreliable, childbirth was tough to avoid. It was rare for a mother, of any class, to raise all her children without one fatality.
Fathers were often killed in factory accidents--with no OSHA to monitor working conditions. The Victorians' repulsive methods of disposing of waste generated many of the fatal illnesses they suffered.
And many people died at their doctor's hands, being bled or "cupped" for all sorts of illnesses and complaints, or treated inappropriately for under-diagnosed symptoms.
I think this climate, in which responsibility was ever-present and mourning was big business, had to have a melancholy affect on children that, luckily, our children don't have.


In the early 1900s, the wealthy children attended private academies.  The schools were houses with a few rooms in them set aside for classrooms.  They were small, with only about three or four pupils in each grade.  One teacher taught several grades in just one room.  In the private schools, girls and boys were not together. They went to separate academies.
Some of the subjects the girls learned were reading, spelling, history, arithmetic, geography and penmanship or handwriting. Sometimes they learned manners and dancing, French, drawing and how to walk and act like a young lady.
The public schools, on the other hand, were free and mostly attended by the kids who were not rich.  Boys and girls were at the same school. There was a class for each grade level with about 20 to 30 kids in each class.
n 1904, children were supposed to go to school until the age of 16; however, most kids never finished the 8th grade.  They went to work in factories, farms and coalmines to help their families.  Some went to high school and a few went to college.  In those days, very few women went to college. Even the rich girls didn't all get to go to college.
From 1910 to 1940, high schools grew in number and size, reaching out to a broader clientele. In 1910, for example, 9% of Americans had a high school diploma; in 1935, the rate was 40%. By 1940, the number had increased to 50%.[ This phenomenon was uniquely American; no other nation attempted such widespread coverage. The fastest growth came in states with greater wealth, more homogeneity of wealth, and less manufacturing activity than others. The high schools provided necessary skill sets for youth planning to teach school, and essential skills for those planning careers in white collar work and some high-paying blue collar jobs. Economist Claudia Goldin argues this rapid growth was facilitated by public funding, openness, gender neutrality, local (and also state) control, separation of church and state, and an academic curriculum. The wealthiest European nations such as Germany and Britain had far more exclusivity to their education system and few youth attended past age 14. Apart from technical training schools, European secondary schooling was dominated by children of the wealthy and the social elites.
The United States chose a type of post-elementary schooling consistent with its particular features — stressing flexible, general and widely applicable skills that were not tied to particular occupations and geographic places had great value in giving students options in their lives. Skills had to survive transport across firms, industries, occupations, and geography in the dynamic American economy.
Public schools were funded and supervised by independent districts that depended on taxpayer support. In dramatic contrast to the centralized systems in Europe, where national agencies made the major decisions, the American districts designed their own rules and curricula
In 1975 Congress passed Public Law 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act. One of the most comprehensive laws in the history of education in the United States, this Act brought together several pieces of state and federal legislation, making free, appropriate education available to all eligible students with a disability. The law was amended in 1986 to extend its coverage to include younger children. In 1990 the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) extended its definitions and changed the label "handicap" to "disabilities". Further procedural changes were amended to IDEA in 1997
No Child Left Behind, passed by a bipartisan coalition in Congress in 2002, marked a new direction. In exchange for more federal aid the states were required to measure progress and punish schools that were not meeting the goals as measured by standardized state exams in math and language skills.  By 2012 half the states were given waivers because the original goal that 100% students by 2014 be deemed "proficient" prov ed unrealistic
The education and job world that young people are entering is so different from just 15 or 20 years ago, it’s not even comparable. For the first time in history we have a truly global economy and global competition. It’s completely the opposite of the Baby Boomers’ experience. Then, America was the center of the world. The Second World War had made the U.S. the most advanced and powerful nation ever seen, while our most capable competition was buried in ash and rubble. Now, not only has the world caught up, it’s educated, connected and competing for U.S. jobs that were the exclusive right of U.S. workers just a couple of decades ago.
People are all over the map with blame — bad teachers, lazy students, distracted parents, video games, junk food — which tells me no one has any real answer. I just know what I keep telling my kids: keep your eyes, ears and options open and your priorities straight because the only living you deserve is the one you earn.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Keeping Nursing Home Residents Safe during Outdoor Activities


Activities directors, caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professinals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

Now that summer has begun in the northern part
of the United States, our thoughts turn to outdoor
activities for the residents. This is a good
time to review some ways to keep the residents
healthy and happy while enjoying some fun in
the sun.
Last year was one of the hottest summers on
record. Having to stay indoors to keep cool was
difficult for the residents with heart conditions
or respiratory problems. Even residents
without these problems were advised to stay
indoors and out of the baking heat and oppressive
humidity. This can be hard when summer is
usually filled with outdoor activities and outings
to the residents' favorite places.
Now is the time to plan outdoor games, picnics,
barbecues, trips to see the residents’ favorite
baseball teams play and other out trips, walks
around the grounds of the facility, sitting outside
talking to visitors or the staff, etc. Now
that the residents are able to spend more time
outdoors, the activity staff needs to build in
some precautions when planning outdoor activities.
Exposure to the sun, insect bites, heat exhaustion,
storage and preparation of food, and
dehydration can put the residents and facility
at risk.
Before planning outings, work with the director
of nursing to develop a protocol for the differ-
...read all of Keeping Nursing Home Residents
Safe during Outdoor Activities by subscribing to

Keeping residents safe while on the go.(LIABILITY landscape): An article from: Nursing Homes

Friday, August 19, 2016

Art unlocks memories buried by dementia

Activities directors and other healthcare professionals here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals.


Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be


Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two


Follow alzheimersideas on twitter


The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

Activities directors, other healthcare professionals and caregivers, another reason to use art therapy with those who have Alzheimer's and related dementias

DemocrarandChronicle.com
People disappear into dementia, losing their memories, their personalities, their ability to connect as they once did with spouses and children and the world around them.

Meet Me At The MAG" is a partnership between the Alzheimer's Association and the University of Rochester's Memorial Art Gallery aimed at helping them reconnect.

It is modeled after a successful and popular program at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, says Susan Daiss, the MAG's McPherson director of education.

"It's one of several things we're doing to integrate the visual arts and health care," she says, including a program that uses works of art to teach medical students to tap their powers of observation.

Meet Me At The MAG is one of those ideas that is so obviously promising you have to wonder why nobody thought of it long ago. "Museums are places of art," Daiss says, "and art is uniquely positioned to help unleash memories."

Sevev years ago, the gallery, with the help of medical students, ran a pilot program at an area nursing home, showing slides of artwork to patients with advanced dementia. "We saw enough to know this clearly could work," Daiss says.

So one day last month — a day when the gallery was otherwise closed to the public — several people with dementia and their caregivers were invited to visit the gallery. They were greeted by docents "trained to ask gentle questions such as 'What does this make you think of?'" Daiss says, "and then to follow the thread with further questions."

"One of the first paintings we saw was of two oak trees in Geneseo," says Joe Gersitz of Penfield, whose wife, Marion, has early-stage dementia. "Then we looked at a still-life of fruits and vegetables, with a girl sitting at a table crying from peeling onions." The art is meant to evoke emotions and tweak the senses, Gersitz says, and it did just that.

The art is carefully selected, Daiss says. "We look for works with a strong narrative content and the potential for association. We used a beautiful landscape of the Genesee River Valley by Asher B. Durand (a New York painter), and we used Norman Rockwell's Soldier on Leave from 1944. It shows a scene in a train where a number of couples are seated, but their faces are not visible. There is a young man in uniform, and there is a gardenia in the hair of a young woman." When the visitors looked at that painting, "the memories...............read the whole article

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Easy movements for those with dementia

Activities directors and other healthcare professionals here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals.


Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be


Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two


Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

Looking for easy exercises for your residents. Here is a list. Attach familiar thoughts to them if you wish such as saying hello to you neighbor on your left or right for moving your head from side to side

Neck side to side
Shoulder shrugs
Bicep curls
Paddling a canoe
Tricep curls single
together
Climbing the ladder
Bent arm raises with a twist
Rowing a boat
Side arm raises
Front arm raises
Pour and hug
Hug yourself
Hand clapping
Punching
Swimming  front crawl
Breast stroke
Drum tapping
Windshield wipers
Chopping wood
Rocking a baby
Throwing a baseball
Throwing a basketball
Smiling
Saying the vowels
Waving a flag
Whole world
Hammering the weasel down
Hand rolling
Waves in the ocean
Head shoulders knees and knees

Monday, August 15, 2016

More about dementia tools

Activities directors, caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professinals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]


What I did not say is that both these books are extremenly useful tools for CNAs

Here is what Vernessa LuShaun Burgess, CNA from Delray Beach, Florida had to say

The book was very insightful. I especially enjoyed the pictures that the staff
and family can use. They will help me communicate with the memory challenged and
provide a personal touch while I am doing it. The ideas were also very helpful
because they involve an involve people with all stages of dementia and can
easily be adapted for verbal and nonverbalindividuals. I give the book two
thumbs up.
Thus have several copies of each book around so they(the CNAs) will be able to engage dementia residents more easily

Also you may want to check out the post on May 30,Activities that ANYONE can do with a RESIDENT with or without dementia
Your comments, please

Simple Fan Craft

Activities directors, caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professinals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

Homemadesimple
Perfect for hot weather entertaining, our handmade paper fans are both stylish and functional. Create your own with our simple step-by-step instructions, then use them at your next celebration or as a sweet decorative touch indoors.
How to Make a Paper Fan
To get started, simply download and print a fan template of your choosing, then gather these materials and follow our easy instructions to assemble:

Materials
Cardstock, 8.5” x 11”
Scissors
Scrapbook paper, color(s) of your choice
Pencil
Craft stick
Tape
Glue stick
Simply cut out the template or for an even easier craft print o template that does not have to be cut out. Even easier use a colored paper plate or have the audience members decorate the plate beforing attaching it securely to a craft stick.
For the best results attach more than half of the crat stich to the plate leaving the rest as a handle.

Saturday, August 13, 2016

Dementia tools

Activities directors, caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professinals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

Often staff and visitors do not know what to do after they say hello to persons with dementia.

Listed is a book that will solve this problem

One is Adorable Photographs of Our Baby-Meaningful Mind Stimulating Activities and More for the Memory Challenged, Their Loved Ones and Involved Professionals.It features baby pictures as a springboard for discussions about anything under the sun.

You may want to make copies of these songs to hand out to the residents, staff and visitors

Let me know what you think

Thanks for stopping by
Katie

Thursday, August 11, 2016

Singing for the brain



Caregivers, and healthcare professionals, here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professinals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition

Alzheimer's Weekly

Using interviews with a group leader, volunteers, people with dementia and their partners, this film explains what Singing for the Brain is, as well as looking at the supportive and enjoyable atmosphere that makes it such a success.

'Singing for the Brain' is a service provided by Alzheimer's Society in approximately 30 locations, all of which use singing to bring people together in a friendly and stimulating social environment.

Singing is not only an enjoyable activity, it can also provide a way for people with dementia, along with their carers, to express themselves and socialise with others in a fun and supportive group.

For more information on Singing for the Brain, please go tohttp://alzheimers.org.uk/singingforthebrain

Tuesday, August 9, 2016

Painting helps those with dementia


Caregivers.com

Obviously nobody paints or plays music 24/7. And it would be hard for a dementia caregiver to organize artsy activities all day long. But don't be too quick to think it's not for you. You don't have to be a sophisticated arts therapist or spend a lot of energy to reap the benefits:
  1. Arts participation gives someone with dementia a sense of accomplishment and pleasure; the resulting positive emotions reverberate throughout your day.
  2. Finding the right "spark" gives you a go-to activity to help change mood in a pinch, when your loved one is upset or bored.
  3. Going out to, say, a concert or a museum in early- to mid-stage disease gets you both out of the house.
"Alzheimer's doesn't take away memory; your memories are all in there. The part of the brain that's damaged is the part that gives you access to memory. It's as if you put the memories in the glove compartment and you lost the key – and the art unlocked it," says John Zeisel, a sociologist who founded Artz for Alzheimer's, a very cool organization that sets up guided museum tours for people with Alzheimer's, among other programs. Zeisel is also the author of last year's I'm Still Here: A Breakthrough Approach to Understanding Someone Living With Alzheimer's.
Some ideas to get you started:
  • Don't assume the arts have no effect if your loved one was never "artsy." Music and painting reach many people with dementia, even the unlikeliest.
  • Experiment. Some people take to dance, others like to pluck a zither or work in fingerpaint. Rent musicals to watch. Visit a museum every Friday afternoon – it can be the same place, looking at the same art, every week; it's the routine and in-the-moment experience that helps.
  • Keep it simple. My Dad, a lifelong photographer, could no longer operate even the simplest camera, but he never lost his enjoyment of polka music. Paint-by-numbers? Maybe not. Watercolor? Who knew your mom was an Impressionist?
  • It's art therapy, not art class. As you look at paintings or art books, resist the urge to quiz about artists or famous works. Just talk about the colors, shapes, and emotions: "Do you like it? How about this one?"